Clinical Literature

  1. DoseRite Clinical Study
    Torabadella L., Salgado G.
    Controlled Dose Delivery in Topical Treatment of Anal fissure: Pilot Study of a New Paradigm.
    Dis Colon & Rectum 2006; 49: 865-868.


  2. AGA Technical Review on the Diagnosis and Care of Patients with Anal Fissure
.
    Madoff R., Fleshman J.
    Gastroenterology 2003, Vol.124, Issue 1: 235-245.

  3. Chemical sphincterotomy–first line of treatment for chronic anal fissure.
    Haq Z., Rahman M., Chowdhury RA., Baten MA., Khatun M.
    Mymensingh Med J. 2005 Jan; 14 (1): 88-90.
  4. Topical diltiazem and bethanechol decrease anal sphincter pressure without side effects.
    Carapeti, EA – Gut – 01-Nov- 1999; 45(5): 719-22.

  5. Differences in contractile properties of anorectal smooth muscle and the effects of calcium channel blockade.
    Cook TA – Br J Surg – 01-Jan-1999; 86(1): 70-5.

  6. Topical diltiazem and bethanechol decrease anal sphincter pressure and heal anal fissures without side effects.
    Carapeti EA – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Oct-2000; 43(10): 1359-62. 


  7. Topical diltiazem ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.
    Knight JS – Br J Surg – 01-Apr-2001; 88(4): 553-6.

  8. A randomized trial of oral vs. topical diltiazem for chronic anal fissures.
    Jonas M – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Aug-2001; 44(8): 1074-8. 


  9. Randomized clinical trial assessing the side-effects of glyceryl trinitrate and diltiazem hydrochloride in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.
    Kocher HM – Br J Surg – 01-Apr-2002; 89(4): 413-7.
    Comment In: Br J Surg. 2002 Oct;89(10):1325 Br J Surg. 2002 Sep;89(9):1193; discussion 1193-4. 

  10. Diltiazem heals glyceryl trinitrate-resistant chronic anal fissures: a prospective study.
    Jonas M – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Aug-2002; 45(8): 1091-5.



  11. Effect of nifedipine on rectoanal motility.
    Chrysos E – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Feb-1996; 39(2): 212-6.

  12. Effects of nifedipine on anorectal smooth muscle in vitro.
    Cook TA – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Jun-1999; 42(6): 782-7.

  13. Nifedipine for local use in conservative treatment of anal fissures: preliminary results of a multicenter study.
    Antropoli C – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Aug-1999; 42(8): 1011-5.
    Comment In: Dis Colon Rectum. 2000 Mar;43(3):430-1.



  14. Conservative treatment of acute thrombosed external hemorrhoids with topical nifedipine.
    Perrotti P – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Mar-2001; 44(3): 405-9. 


  15. Topical nifedipine with lidocaine ointment vs. active control for treatment of chronic anal fissure: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.
    Perrotti P – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Nov-2002; 45(11): 1468-75.

  16. Is topical nifedipine effective for chronic anal fissures?
    Merenstein D – J Fam Pract – 01-Mar-2003; 52(3): 190-2. 



  17. Distribution of nitric oxide synthase containing neurons in the rectal myenteric plexus and anal canal. Morphologic evidence that nitric oxide mediates the rectoanal inhibitory reflex.
    O’Kelly TJ – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Apr-1994; 37(4): 350-7. 



  18. Nitrergic innervation and relaxant response of rectal circular smooth muscle.
    Stebbing JF – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Mar-1996; 39(3): 294-9. 

  19. 

Role of nitric oxide in relaxation of the longitudinal layer of rectal smooth muscle.
    Stebbing JF – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Jun-1997; 40(6): 706-10. 



  20. Nitric oxide synthase neurones and neuromuscular behaviour of the anorectum.
    Stebbing JF – Ann R Coll Surg Engl – 01-Mar-1998; 80(2): 137-45. 

  21. 

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the human internal anal sphincter.
    Tomita R – J Gastroenterol – 01-Jan-2001; 36(6): 386-91. 

  22. 


Topical L-arginine gel lowers resting anal pressure: possible treatment for anal fissure.
    Griffin N – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Oct-2002; 45(10): 1332-6. 



  23. Audit of topical glyceryl trinitrate for treatment of fissure-in-ano.
    Hasegawa H – Ann R Coll Surg Engl – 01-Jan-2000; 82(1): 27-30.
    Comment: Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2001 May; 83(3): 220-1.



  24. Double-blind manometric assessment of two topical glyceryl trinitrate formulations in patients with chronic anal fissures.
    Bassotti G – Dig Liver Dis – 01-Nov-2000; 32(8): 699-702. 



  25. Treatment of chronic anal fissure with topical glyceryl trinitrate: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
    Chaudhuri S – Indian J Gastroenterol – 2001 May-Jun; 20(3): 101-2.
    Comment In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2001 Sep-Oct; 20(5): 206-8. 



  26. Systemic levels of glyceryl trinitrate following topical application to the anoderm do not correlate with the measured reduction in anal pressure.
    Jonas M – Br J Surg – 01-Dec-2001; 88(12): 1613-6. 



  27. Topical mononitrate treatment in patients with anal fissure.
    Tankova L – Aliment Pharmacol Ther – 01-Jan-2002; 16(1): 101-3. 


  28. Treatment of chronic anal fissure with topically applied nitroglycerin ointment. A systematic review of evidence-based results.
    Svendsen CB – Ugeskr Laeger – 12-Aug-2002; 164(33): 3845-9. 



  29. Randomized, placebo-controlled treatment of anal fissure by lidocaine, EMLA, and GTN in children.
    Sönmez K – J Pediatr Surg – 01-Sep-2002; 37(9): 1313-6.

  30. A study to determine the nitroglycerin ointment dose and dosing interval that best promote the healing of chronic anal fissures.
    Bailey HR – Dis Colon Rectum – 01-Sep-2002; 45(9): 1192-9. 



  31. 

Anal Fissure.
    Jonas, M and Scholefield
, JH. Gastroenterology Clinics March 2001; Vol 30 (1). 161-81

  32. Anal fissure.
    Metcalf, AM. Surgical Clinics of North America; December 2002; Volume 82(6) 1291-7.